There is a great deal of variety in the landscape in Italy, although it is characterized predominantly by two mountain chains: the Alps and the Apennines. The former extends over 600 miles from east to west. It consists of great massifs in the western sector, with peaks rising to over 14,000 feet, including Monte Bianco (Monte Blanc), Monte Rosa and Cervino (the Matterhorn). The chain is lower in the eastern sector, although the mountains, the Dolomites, are still of extraordinary beauty. At the foot of the Alpine arc stretches the vast Po Valley plain, cut down the middle by the course of the river Po, the longest in Italy (390 miles), which has its source in the Pian de Re (Monviso) and flows into the Adriatic through a magnificent delta. The Alpine foothills are characterized by large lakes: Lake Maggiore and the lakes of Como, Iseo and Garda.
The Apennines forms the backbone of the peninsula, stretching in a wide arc concave to the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Corno Grande Gran Sasso d'Italia) is the highest peak. A large part of central Italy is characterized by a green hilly landscape, through which the rivers Arno and Tevere (Tiber) run. The southern section of the chain pushes out to the east forming the Gargano promontory and, sloping down further south, the Salentine peninsula. It the proceeds to the west with the Calabrian and Peloritano massif stretching across the Strait of Messina into Sicilia. The principal islands are Sicilia, rising up to the great volcanic cone of Etna (10,860 feet) and Sardegna. The main Archipelago, the Pontine Islands, the Aeolian Islands and the Egadi islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the coast of Sicilia.
THE MODERATING INFLUENCE OF THE SEA and the protection given by the alpine barrier from the cold north winds join to bless Italy with a temperature climate. Nevertheless, the weather varies considerably according to how far one is from the sea or the mountains. The winter is ver y cold in the Alps, cold and foggy in the Po Plain and the central Apennines; mild and even warm on the Ligurian coast, the Neapolitan coast and in Sicilia. The summer is hot and dry, but the temperature is mitigated on the coast by sea breezes and in the Apennines and Alps it is pleasantly cool. In mountain areas, winter is ideal for skiing, and summer for excursions, hiking, etc. Seaside and lake resorts, with their excellent hotel facilities, have an intense tourist season the summer, while the cities that are rich in art treasures are ideal in spring and autumn.
IN TERMS OF STANDARD TIME ZONES, Italy is six hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time in the U.S. Daylight saving time in Italy goes into effect each year usually from the end of March to the end of September, middle of October.
JANUARY 1 New year's Day
JANUARY 6 Epiphany
Easter Monday
APRIL 25 Liberation Day
MAY 1 Labor Day
AUGUST 15 Assumption of the Virgin
NOVEMBER 1 All Saints Day
DECEMBER 8 Day of Immaculate Conception
DECEMBER 25 Christmas Day
DECEMBER 26 Santo Stefano
Offices and shops are also closed in the following cities on the local feast days honoring their patron Saints:
APRIL 25 San Marco (VENEZIA)
JUNE 24 San Giovanni Battista (FIRENZE, GENOVA, TORINO)
JUNE 29 San Pietro and Paolo (ROMA)
JULY 15 Santa Rosalia (PALERMO)
OCTOBER 4 San Petronio (BOLOGNA)
OCTOBER 30 San Saturnino (CAGLIARI)
DECEMBER 6 San Nicola (BARI)
DECEMBER 7 Sant'Ambrogio (MILANO)
ALL SUNDAYS, although many shops are now open, especially in seasonally important tourist areas.
A VISA IS NOT REQUIRED for a U.S. or Canadian citizen holding a valid passport unless he/she expects to stay in Italy more than 90 days and/or study or seek employment. If after entering Italy the tourist decides he would like to stay more than 90 days, he can apply to obtain a "permesso di soggiorno" (permit to stay), once only, at any police station (Questura) for an extension of an additional 90 days. He will be asked to prove that he is a bona fide tourist with adequate means of support and that he does not request the extension for study or employment. As a rule, permission is granted immediately. It is suggested that non-American citizens check current visa requirements with the nearest Italian Consulate before departure.
For visa information please visit:
For information on Italian corporations please visit:

NO VACCINATIONS ARE REQUIRED TO enter Italy or to re-enter the U.S.
The new monetary currency is the Euro which is divided as follows: bills of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500; coins of 1, 2, 5, 10 , 20 and 50 cents, 1,2 Euro. Tourists reaching Italy without foreign currency can obtain Euros through any bank, ATM machines, or exchange office (Ufficio di Cambio) at airports, seaports and railway stations in the main cities. Foreign notes, travelers'checks and letters of credit are purchased by Italian banks at the current rate of exchange less a small commission.
BANKS IN ITALY ARE OPEN Monday to Friday from 8:35 am to 1:35 pm and from 3 pm to 4pm and close all day on Sat. and Sun. and on national holidays. Afternoon hours may vary from city to city. Travelers'checks can be exchanged for Italian currency at most hotels and shops and foreign exchange offices in main railway stations and airports.
POST OFFICES ARE GENERALLY OPEN from 8 am -1:30 or 2 pm from Monday to Friday, Saturday 8 - 11:45 am. Some counters (e.g. registered mail, telegrams, etc.) have different hours and in the main cities they may also open in the afternoon.
ITALY HAS NO MEDICAL PROGRAM covering U.S. tourists are advised to buy insurance before traveling. First Aid Service (Pronto Soccorso) is found at airports, ports, railway stations and hospitals.
A TRAVELERE ENTERING ITALY with a dog or cat must have a veterinarian's certificate stating that the animal is in good health and has been vaccinated against rabies between 20 days and 11 months before entry into Italy. The certificate is valid for 30 days. The forms (from Ministero della Sanita'Mod. U) are available from all Italian diplomatic and consular representatives. A dog must be on a leash and muzzled when in public.
THE ELETTRICAL CURRENT IN ITALY IS AC, the cycle is 50 and the voltage is 220. A tourist carrying electrical appliances to Italy should have a transformer, either obtained before leaving the U.S. or bought at an electrical appliance shop in Italy. Check the local voltage with the hotel before using electrical appliances. Plugs have two round-pronged plugs, making an adapter plug necessary. Many electrical appliances such as pressing steam irons, hair dryers and water heaters ate available in the U.S. for use abroad without the need of separate transformers or adapters.
PUBLIC TELEPHONES ARE AVAILABLE throughout Italy. Either local or international calls require the use of a phone card (Carta Telefonica) which may be purchased at any newsstand, tobacco shop or "BAR"(coffee shop). Both local and long distance call require the proper area code before dialing the number.
Ex: to place a call within Rome you must dial 06 + phone number.
To call Rome from Florence : 06 + phone number; to call Florence from Rome : 055 + phone number.
When calling a cellular phone, drop the zero of the area code, ex: 397 + phone number of the cellular.
Useful Phone Numbers
113 Emergency Police Help - 112 Carabinieri - 115 Fire Department - 116 Road Assistance (Italian Auto Club) - 176 International Inquires - 118 Medical Emergencies
The American driving licence is recognized in Italy and you must be 25 years old to be able to rent a car. Traffic rules are the same as in USA, distances are indicated in kilometers (1km = 0.621 miles). The wearing of the seat belt in front and rear seats is obligatory, children up to 5 years of age should be seated in a car seat. Cellular phones can be used while driving if operated with head set. The wearing of a helmet is obligatory on two wheeled vehicles.
Learn Italian : Learn Italian guide, all about how to learn italian and how to speak italian.

ZTL Hours 
Centro Storico (day)
From 6:30 to 18:00 (6pm) on weekdays & From 14.00 (2pm) to 18.00 (6pm) saturday
Centro Storico (night)
From 23:00 (11pm) to 3:00 am
Rione Monti
From 23:00 (11pm) to 3:00 am
San Lorenzo
From 21:00 (9pm) to 3:00am
From 23:00 (11pm) to 3:00 am
Trastevere (day)
From 6:30 to 10:00 am 
Trastevere (night)
From 23:00 (11pm) to 3:00 am

ALMOST ALL THE SERVICE STATIONS in the country are equipped with pumps for lead free (95 octane) and diesel fuel. The fuel distribution network for gas-propelled vehicles is reasonably developed (ask for information at the Automobile Club d'Italia offices). Service stations are open from 7 am to 12:30 pm and from 3 pm to 7:30 pm. Service is guaranteed 24 hours a day on the motorways. Automatic pumps function in the evenings and at night.
SHOPS ARE OPEN FROM 9 am to 1 pm and from 3:30/4 pm to 7:30/8 pm Tuesday to Saturday, and Monday afternoon. From the middle of June to the middle of September, the shops are closed on Saturday afternoon but would be open on Monday morning.
Clothes for men and women (dresses, shoes, gloves, silk ties, skirts); lacework, jewelry, leather goods (handbags, cases, boxes, luggage), ceramics, gold and silver items, alabaster; woodwork, straw, embroidery, glass and crystal ware. It is advisable to carry merchandise purchased with you in order to avoid any inconvenience. All major credit cars are honored in Italy. A proof of purchase (receipt) must be kept.
CASALE MONFERRATO (Alessandria) "Antique Market." Saturdays and Sundays of the second week of each month, except August.
TORINO Porta Palazzo (Piazza della Repubblica) "Il Balon." All day every Saturday.
MILANO "Senigaglia Market" (Via Calatafimi). Every Saturday from 8 am to 7 pm.
"Oh Bei! Oh Bei! Market" (Piazza Sant'Ambrogio). From December 5th to 8th every year.
BOLOGNA "La Piazzola" (Piazza VIII Agosto). Friday and Saturday from 7 am until one hour before sundown.
GENOVA Piazzatta Lavagna (off Via Luccoli). Daily Monday to Friday (mornings and afternoons).
ARMA DI TAGGIA (Imperia) Fourth Saturday and Sunday of the month.
FERRARA Piazza Travoglio. Every Monday.
MODENA Via Corso Cavour - Viale Fontanelli - Viale Berengario. Monday from 8 am to 1 pm.
AREZZO "Antique Fair" (Piazza Grande). The first Saturday and Sunday of each month (from Saturday morning to Sunday evening.
FIRENZE Piazza dei Ciompi.Opening hours are like the shops. Open all day on the last Sunday of every month. - San Lorenzo (Piazza San Lorenzo) open 365 days a year.
LIVORNO American Market, Piazza XX Settembre. Daily from 9 am to 7:30 pm.
LUCCA Piazza del Duomo and adjacent to Via del Battistero. Third Saturday and Sunday of each month, except on religious holidays.
VIAREGGIO (Lucca) In Piazzatta near the dock. Thursday mornings.
FORTE DEI MARMI (Lucca) Piazza del Mercato. Wednesday morning from 8 am
GROSSETO - Piazza De Maria and a part beneath the walls. Every Thursday holiday or on the weekday preceding a holiday.
GUBBIO (Perugia) Via Baldassini. Second Sunday of each month.
ROMA - Porta Portese. Every Sunday from 8 am to 2 pm. - Via Sannio (near Piazza San Giovanni). Daily except Sunday until sundown.
LATINA - Via Quarto - Via Mugilla - Via Ardea - Via Sulmo. American market every Tuesday from 8 am to 1:30 pm.
NAPOLI - Weekend Flea Market (in the Viale Dohrn of the Villa Comunale). Twice a month. - Crib Figurines Market (Via San Gregorio Armeno). Year round. - For food market try Porta Nolana.
BENEVENTO - Piazza Risorgimento and Piazza Santa Maria. Wednesday and Saturday from 8 am to 1 pm.
COSENZA - Via Lungo Crati De Seta. Every day.
CATANIA - Piazza Carlo Alberto. Daily except Sunday from 8 am to 2 pm.
MESSINA - Via La Farina (at the intersection with Viale Europa). Daily during the morning hours.
PALERMO - Piazza Domenico Peranni. Daily from 9 am until sundown. Sunday and holidays until 1 pm.
All major credit cards are honored in Italy.
Although everyone loves Italian food, figuring out where and what to eat in Italy can pose problems for the traveler. Knowing what type of meal or snack you wish to have and considering time limitations, you may wish to consider one of the following choices:
Bar: The place to have espresso and all its variations, rolls and small sandwiches, alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Pay first and give the receipt to barman with order. It is usual to stand at the bar, as there is a service charge for sitting at a table. Bars in Italy are open from early morning to late night.
Panineria: A sandwich bar, where a quick meal can be had.
Trattoria: Less formal than a ristorante, where local specialties are served.
Ristorante: The most formal type of place to eat when one is not in a hurry. The order of courses is antipasto, pasta or soup, main course, salad, and dessert, all accompanied by good wine.
The Club Alpino Italiano (Club A;pino Italiano, via Silvio Pellico 8 Milano tel. 02 7202-3085 /7202-2557 owns nearly 600 huts in the mountain districts and publishes a yearly book with a map and information on access, equipment and tariffs for each according to grade. The Touring Club Italiano (Corso Italia 10, 20122 Milano, Tel. 02 85261, Fax 02 852-6362) publishes several volumes giving detailed mountain itineraries and excursion information that includes the huts.
The number and variety of mineral springs in Italy have been known ever since Roman times. Today, Italy boasts a total of 193 spas, several of which are known all over the world for their elegance and the therapeutic effects of their waters. Almost the entire range of water cures can be taken in Italy, whether in the form of sulfur or mud baths, or in that of the natural waters with their varying content of beneficial mineral compounds of arsenates, iron bicarbonates, iodine, radioactive elements, etc.. Information is provided by: Italian Thermal Baths Association: Federterme, Via Piemonte 39, 00187 Roma. Tel: 06 4201-0666 fax: 06 4201-0315
Italy is the only Alpine country to encompass the entire Alpine Arc (1400 km). The Alps together with the Apennine Mountains, which stretch for an additional 1400 kilometers, make Italy a prime winter sport center with more than 400 well-equipped winter resorts. Many are internationally famous - Cortina d'Ampezzo, Sestriere, Cervinia and Courmayer to name a few.
Clevedale - Capanna, Casati Santa Caterina Valfurva Colle Sommelier, Bardonecchia Colle del Gigante, Courmayer Ghiacciaio Val Senales, Masa Corto, Merano Lobbia Alta - Rigugio ai Caduti dell Adamello, Pinzolo Marmolada, Malga Ciapela, Caprile, Canazei Monte Livio, Passo Stelvio, Bormio, Trafoi Passo Monte Moro, Macugnaga Plateau Rosa, Cervinia Presena, Passo del Tonale, Ponte di Legno, Male Punta Indren, Alagna Valsesia Val di Lei, Madesimo Many other sports and outdoor activities (Golf, Yachting, Fishing, Scuba Diving and Spear Fishing, Water Skiing, Cycling, Horse-back Riding, etc.) are available throughout Italy. Information on each respective sport federation, with Tel./Fax numbers can be obtained from this office or the local tourist board.
Taxi service is readily available throughout the country and rates are comparable to those charged in average U.S. and Canadian cities. Meters are provided and fares are displayed. Extra charges: Night service supplement between 10 pm and 6 am; Sundays and holiday supplement; luggage (per item). For taxi trips outside the city boundaries, fares will be based on distance.
Churches are open early morning until 12:00 pm when many churches are closed for two hours and then re-open until the evening. Major cathedrals and basilicas are open all day.
Roma Anglican Church of All Saints. Tel: 06 6794357 - Via del Babuino, 153 Baptist Church. Tel: 06 8814838 - Viale Jonio, 203 International Protestant. Te.: 06 745400 - Via Chiovenda, 57 Methodist. Tel: 06 4743695 - Via Firenze, 38 Firenze American Episcopal Church, St. James. Tel: 055 294417 - Via B. Rucellai, 9 Church of England. Tel: 055 295764 - Via Maggio, 16 Milano Anglican Church All Saints. Tel: 02 6552258 - Via Solferino, 12 Christ Church. Tel: 02 8056215 - Via del Bollo, 5 Napoli Anglican Church. Tel: 081 411842 - Via San Pasquale, 18 Baptist Church. Tel: 081 5546317 - Via Foria, 93 Lutheran Church. Tel: 081 663207 - Via Carlo Poerio, 5 Methodist Church. Tel: 081 364263 - Via Vaccaro, 20 Venezia St. George Anglican Church. Tel: 041 5200571 - Campo San Vio, 870 Lutheran Evangelical Church. Tel: 041 5242040 - Campo SS Apostoli, 4443 Evangelical Waldensian and Methodist Church. Tel: 041 5227549 - St. Maria Formosa, 5170

To visit the Vatican Gardens you must be part of a group. Tours are available every day except Wednesday and Holidays, starting 10 am. Starting point is the information office in Piazza San Pietro , Tel 01139-06-698.84.466 or Fax 01139-06-698.83.407 (Pilgrim Tourist Information Office). It is advisable to bring your passport and reserve ahead .
Entrance in Viale Vaticano , Tel 01139-06-698-84947. Opening hours: Monday to Friday 8.15am to 4.45pm, Saturday 8.15 am to 1.35pm. Closed all Sundays except for the last Sunday of the month when admittance to the museum is free. Closing days: January 1 and 6 ; February 11; March 19; Easter Monday; May 1 and Ascension; Corpus Christi and June 29; August 15; November 1; December 8; December 25 and 26; Within the Vatican Museum special permits are required for Vatican Library Archives and the Raphael Loggia (general number for Vatican City is +39 06 6982). A guided tour of the pre-Constantine cemetery under the Cript of Saint Peter , where archeologist believe Saint Peter is buried, is also available. This tour must be booked in advance by contacting the Office of Prefettura della Casa Pontificia (no children under 14 allowed). For more information visit:
ACTV How can we talk of Venice without mentioning its unique transport system? All information provided here.
Atvo Information on public transport in Eastern Veneto. Shuttle service from Venice and Treviso airports.
Venice Airport - Marco Polo Searchable index of flights, departures and arrivals.
Motorways Information from the official site of Italy's motorway-management company

Fiumicino Airport "Leonardo da Vinci" (FCO) :
Rome's main airport is well-connected to the center during the day by a direct train and slower trains. The direct train between Fiumicino and Termini costs euro; 9,50 and takes approximately 30 minutes. Tickets can be purchased at vending machines, ticket offices and other vendors at both Termini and Fiumicino.
every 30 minutes
Fiumicino - Roma from 6.37am until 11.37pm
Roma - Fiumicino from 5.52am until 10.52pm
There is another train connecting Fiumicino airport to central Rome - when you are at the airport train station look for the train with the destination Orte or Fara Sabina.
It is slower (and cheaper) because it stops at some smaller local stations along the way and does not stop at Termini. Trains take about 45 minutes to reach Tiburtina. Tickets cost euro 5,00.
schedule: every 15-30 minutes
Fiumicino Airport - Trastevere - Ostiense - Tiburtina from 5.57am until 11.27pm
Tiburtina - Ostiense - Trastevere - Fiumicino Airport from 5.06am until 10.36pm
For more
Ciampino Airport " G.B. Pastine" (CIA)
A smaller airport dealing mainly with charter flights and budget airlines. It is connected to Line A metro station Anagnina (about 30 mins by metro from Termini) by Cotral buses; ticket costs euro 1,03. Buses leave every 30-60 minutes.
For more information:
From the airports - night time
Fiumicino Airport "Leonardo da Vinci" (FCO)
For arrivals and departures between 11.30pm and 5am, a night bus connects Fiumicino with Tiburtina station, stopping also at Termini Station.
From Fiumicino: 1.15am - 2.15am - 3.30am - 5.00am
From Tiburtina: 0.30am - 1.15am - 2.30am - 3.45am
The 40N bus connects Tiburtina and Termini during the night.
Ciampino Airport "G.B. Pastine" (CIA)
Buses connecting Ciampino airport with the centre of Rome stop running at 11pm, so the only way to get into town late at night is by tax or better using our services.
You may be approached by illegal taxi drivers in the station and at the airport. If you need a taxi, look for the official white taxis which have meters. There are taxi stands at both Fiumicino and Termini.
THE BEST WAY TO ARRIVE IN ROME FROM THE AIRPORTS IS  with our transfer service especially if you are more than 3 people. Ask to our travel consultant at the booking form.

Motorways are indicated by the letter "A" followed by a number written in white on a green background. They are almost all subject to toll, except for some brief stretches , especially approaching urban areas. The speed limit is 130 km/h , with penalties for violation in proportion to the amount of the excess. A breakdown service (telephone number 116) is available from the Automobile Club Italiano (ACI) throughout the country. Calls for help on the motorways can be made from the emergency position, located every 2 km , 24 hours a day. Emergency positions contain a button with the symbol of a spanner for use in case of a breakdown and one with the Red Cross symbol if first aid is required. Tolls are paid in cash or by "Viacard"at motorway exit points. There is an extensive and well-maintained road network. As in the rest of continental Europe , vehicles travel on the right and overtake on the left. The wearing of seatbelts is compulsory for front and back seat passengers as well for the driver. The use of portable telephones is prohibited if they require intervention by hand to function. Speed limits are fixed at 50 km/h (31MPH) in urban areas , 90km/h (56 MPH) on main roads outside urban areas and 130km/h (80MPH) on motorways. Automobile Club Italia has its own offices in each prtovince, the head office is in Via Marsala 8- 00185 Roma- tel 06 49981 fax 06 499 82469.
For more information please visit
Also called benzina unleaded petrol is "benzina senza piombo" and diesel is "gasolio" . Almost all service stations in the country are equipped with pumps for lead-free petrol (95 octane) and diesel fuel.
Italy recognizes driving license and other traffic documents that are valid in other countries.
Italy has a total of almost 5,275 miles of coastline, including the peninsula itself and all the numerous islands un the seas around the country. There are many services linking the islands in the sea around the country: the main links are by car ferries and hydrofoils. In addition , ships from all the country around the Mediterranean are moored in the well-equipped Italian port. For information about FERRIES all over Italy and from/to the Mediterranean countries, please visit:
For information on the boats, please write to GESTIONE NAVIGAZIONE LAGHI, Lake Government Administration, Via L. Ariosto 21,- 20145 Milano - tel 02 4676101, Fax 02 46761059
The Italian lakes , located throughout the peninsula , are enchanting. A lake holiday offers the tourist peace and quiet as wellas the opportunity to enjoy water sports such as swimming, sailing, surfing, water skiing, motorboating, canoeing and many others. In Northern Italy, the lakes of Orta, Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo and Garda are popular. They have car ferry services linking the different point of the lakes. There are other smaller lakes as well, less well known,, but also extraordinarily beautiful. In central Italy , Bolsena, Bracciano and Trasimeno are examples of vulcanic lakes.
Italy is an art lover's paradise. It has been likened to one vast museum. No other country in the world has such a long and rich history of artistic creativity. A UNESCO study placed 40% of the art of the world in Italy. For your convenience, we will highlight the different art periods and list some of the most outstanding museums, art galleries and archaeological sites related to these periods.
We will begin with the Balzi Rossi caves near Ventimiglia and the Lunense Museum in La Spezia (Liguria Region). Archeological sites and caves in Puglia, Sicily, Sardinia and Lombardy. The Sassi in Matera, the Graffiti in Val Camonica, the Pigorini Museum in Rome. Museums in Reggio Emilia, Bologna, Ancona, Perugia, Matera, Taranto, Siracusa, Agrigento, Lipari and Caglari.
THE ETRUSCANS (8th to 2nd Century BC)
Mostly Central Italy. Archeological sites of Populonia, Vetulonia, Island of Elba, Volterra, Fiesole, Arezzo, Ortona, Chiusi, Roselle, Perugia, Orvieto, Todi, Tarquinia, Bolsena, Norcia, Cerveteri, Vulci and Veio. The Villa Giulia Museum in Rome, the Archeological Museum of Florence and the Civic Museum of Bologna.
MAGNA GRECIA (8th to 3rd Century BC)
Greek or Greek influenced art, mostly in southern Italy. The Archeological sites: The Valley of the Temples at Agrigento, Doric Temples at Paestum and Segesta. Archeological sites at Cuma, Velio, Crotone, Sibari, Locri, Squillace, Metaponto, Nova, Siri, Taranto, Siracusa, Selinunte, Naxos and Taormina. The National Museum in Naples, Vatican Museums, Museo Ridola in Matera and Museums in Reggio Calabria, Palermo, Catania, Messina, Agrigento, Paestum and Siracuse.
ROMAN PERIOD (8th Century BC to 5th Century AD)
The main Roman buildings (bridges, theaters, acqueducts, roads, etc) are naturally in Rome itself and the surroundings (Ostia Antica and Tivoli) Pompei and Ercolano. Other notable remains are in Turin, Susa, Aosta, Milan, Brescia, Sirmione, Trieste, Aquileia, Verona, Rimini, Bologna, Ancona, Ascoli Piceno, Gubbio, Narni, Spoleto, Fiesole, Arezzo, Siracuse, Catania, Taormina, Lumi, Piazza Armerina, Nora and Oristano. The National Museum in Naples and several museums in Rome, like the National Roman Museum, the Capitoline Museums, the Vatican and the Museum of Roman Civilization.
The most remarkable Churches of this long period are in Ravenna, notable ones are also in Rome, Spoleto, Milan, Padua, Stilo, Aquileia and throughout the Tuscany Region.
Artists began to create highly individual works within the general artistic and cultural framework of the period (Antelami, Cimabue, Cavallini, Duccio, etc). Examples of Romanesque art can be found in the Regions of Lombardy, Veneto Trentino, Alto Adige, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Lazio, Campania and Puglia
GOTHIC (12th to 14th century)
The main artist of the period was Giotto (expecially in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padova, St. Francis Basilica in Assisi , Peruzzi and Bardi Chapels in Santa Croce in Firenze). The most important buildings are in Vercelli, Chiaravalle, Fossanova, Casamari, San Galgano, Firenze, Arezzo, Siena, Pisa, Pistoia, Milano, Como, Pavia, Bergamo, Venezia, Padova, Verona, Vicenza.
RENAISSANCE (15th to 16th century)
The Renaissance is probably the single most important artistic and cultural movement in the history of Western Civilization, a movement which also pointed the way for many future European achievment in the arts. It began in Firenze at the dawn of the 15th century . The work of artist of this period enrich not just Italy but many other countries , though it is obviously in Italy that you find the richest art collection , buildings, churches, etc. This is the age that gave to the world Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, Donatello, Piero della Francesca, Mantegna, Antonello da Messina, Carpaccio, Giorgione, Paolo Uccello, and many others. The most outstanding art collections of the Renaissance are : the Uffizi Gallery, Pitti Palace Gallery and San Marco Museum in Firenze; Vatican Picture Gallery and Borghese Museum in Roma; Brera Gallery in Milano; Accademia Gallery in Venezia,; Capodimonte Museum in Napoli; the Torino Picture Gallery; the Perugia National Gallery; the Parma National Gallery; the Urbino National Gallery.
Palladio and Caravaggio are the supreme artists of this age but many others developed the Renaissance ideals in churches, palaces, architectural complexes and paintings, expecially Cellini, Sansovino, Pontiormo, Bronzino, Correggio, Tintoretto, Veronese, etc. The main works are found all over northern and central Italy. Most of the Renaissance art galleries display their paintings.
BAROQUE (17th to 18th century)
The work of the artists of these periods , in particular Bernini, Borromini, Loghena, Juvara, Vanvitelli, Canaletto, Carracci, Domenichino, Reni, Guardi, Longhi, Tiepolo, and Bellotto, are found all over Italy but expecially in Roma, Venezia, Torino, Parma, Modena, Bologna, Milano, Napoli, Caserta, Lecce, Palermo, Catania, Siracusa e Noto.
The main work of the artist of these period is in Roma (expecially Canova), Milano, Napoli and Firenze. The most important modern art collections are in Roma, Firenze, Venezia, Milano, Napoli, Genova, the Canova Museum in Possago and the Civic Museum in Trieste.
Opening hours vary according to place and season. There are 3,642 museum, art galleries and archeological sites in Italy, some state-owned and some are privately-owned, so opening hours may differ. Majority of the museums are closed on Mondays, however for more detail information please visit :
Some museums required advanced booking, here is a list of the more popular museums of Italy: Uffizzi, Galleria dell'Accademia, Palazzo Pitti with the Galleria Palatina, all in Florence; the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Venice; Palazzo and Pinacoteca Brera and Santa Maria delle Grazie (Da Vinci's Last Supper) in Milan; the Egyptian Museum (Palazzo dell'Accademia delle Scienze) in Turin; In Naples the Palazzo Capodimonte with Pinacoteca, the Archeological Museum and the Royal Palace.
In Rome, extended hours apply to the Villa Borghese, the Castel Sant'Angelo on the Tiber River, Palazzo Altemps and the Museum of Modern Art.
Major symphonic series and recitals are organized at all times during the year by music conservatories; associations and clubs with the participation of world famous artists. Most major Opera Houses have symphonic concert seasons and ballet seasons. The famous International Ballet Festival is held in Nervi, near Genoa, in July.
Popular Music:
The two most important events are the Festival of Italian Popular Songs in San Remo at the end of January , the Festivalbar in Saint Vincent in July and the Traditional Festival of Piedigrotta in Naples in September.

OPERA Italy, opera's ancestral home, offers visitors a wide selection of opera season throughout the year. The Teatro alla Scala of Milan, the Teatro San Carlo of Naples and the Teatro dell'Opera in Rome are world renowned for technical perfection of performances and detailed magnificence of choreography and costumes. The opera season occurs from December to June in the major opera houses like Teatro La Fenice (Venice), Teatro Massimo (Palermo), Teatro Regio (Parma), Teatro Comunale (Florence), Teatro Petruzzelli (Bari), Teatro Massimo Bellini (Catania), Teatro Comunale (Bologna), Teatro Comunale Verdi (Trieste), Teatro Comunale (Genoa), and Teatro Regio (Turin).
In summer, spectacular open air opera is presented at the Terme di Caracalla in Rome and the Arena in Verona (July/August), and the Arena Sferisterio in Macerata (July). Also during July/August, the Teatro Rossetti of Trieste presents an Operetta Festival.
Two of the most important Italian Festivals for the performing arts are the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, (opera, concerts, ballet & drama) in Florence (May/June) and the Festival of the Two Worlds (opera, concerts, ballet, drama & art exhibits) in Spoleto (mid June/mid July)

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